Human ageing is associated with deficits in goal-directed learning and reduced neural plasticity. Yet, the underlying neural mechanisms remain poorly understood as most age-comparative human studies rely on correlational designs. Our focus group develops a species-comparative paradigm to examine effects of external (e.g. environmental enrichment) and internal (e.g. epi-genetic) factors as well as interventions (cognitive, physical training) on learning strategies and neural plasticity in ageing.